Physiology Practical

Sándor Borbély

László Détári

Tünde Hajnik

Katalin Schlett

Krisztián Tárnok

Attila Tóth

Petra Varró

Ildikó Világi

Editor 
Ildikó Világi

Reviewer 
József Toldi

Table of Contents

1. Rules for laboratory experiments
1.1. Basic regulations during the practical
1.1.1. Protection of life
1.1.2. Protection of health
1.1.3. Other safety regulations
1.2. Rules of experiments on humans
1.3. Rules of experiments on animals
1.4. Regulations for the use of the internet
2. Introduction to operative surgery
2.1. Anaesthesia and pain relief
2.2. Immobilization of the animal
2.3. Injections
2.4. Preparation of the area of the operation
2.5. Types of operation
2.6. Physiological requirements
2.7. Surgical instruments
2.8. General design of experimental surgery
2.9. Preparation
2.10. Wound closure: sutures and staples
2.11. Postoperative treatment
3. Biopac Student Lab (BSL) System
3.1. Parts of the system (MP30/35/36)
3.2. Data acquisition with the BSL program
3.3. Data analysis
4. Analysis of human blood
4.1. Introduction
4.1.1.Components of blood
4.1.2. Hemostasis
4.1.3. Blood groups and blood types
4.1.4. Blood typing
4.1.5. Materials needed
4.1.6. Drawing blood from the finger
4.2. Quantitative analysis of human blood
4.2.1. How to use the pipettes
4.2.2. How to make dilutions
4.2.3. How to count the cells
4.3. Determination of the ABO and Rh blood groups
4.4. Determination of bleeding and clotting time
4.5. Qualitative analysis of blood smear
5. Human electro-cardiography (ECG) and analysis of cardiovascular system
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Measurement of human electrocardiogram (ECG) using the Biopac system
5.2.1 Investigating the effect of body position
5.2.2. Investigating cardiovascular reflexes
5.2.3. Investigating the effects of exercise
5.2.4. Data analysis
5.3. Analysis of human blood pressure
6. Investigating the human respiration
6.1. Introduction
6.1.1. The respiratory system
6.1.2. Measuring the respiratory function
6.1.3. Control of respiration
6.2. Investigation of human pulmonary function
6.2.1. Task 1 – Measurement of Static (Inspirational) Vital Capacity
6.2.2. Task 2 - Forced inspiration/expiration - dynamic recordings
6.2.3. Task 3 - Measurement of maximal voluntary ventilation (MMV)
6.3. Analyzing CO2 content of exhaled air with the Müller’s method
7. Investigation of human skeletal muscle functions
7.1. Introduction
7.1.1. Control of muscle activity and tension
7.1.2. Fatigue
7.2. Monitoring of muscle activity by electromyography (EMG)
7.3. Measuring motor unit recruitment and muscle fatigue
8. Endocrinological functions
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Pregnancy tests
8.2.1. Rapid immunological assay determining human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
8.3. Determining blood glucose level
8.3.1. Automated blood glucose meters (glucometers)
8.3.2. Calibration of blood glucose meters
8.3.3. How to use blood glucose meters
8.3.4. Tasks to be carried out
9. Investigating human perception – physical and physiological tests
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Investigations of hearing
9.3. Experiments on the hearing system
9.3.1. Pure tone audiometry (PTA)
9.3.2. Sound localization test
9.3.3. Rinne tuning fork test
9.4. Sometosensory receptors
9.4.1. Examination of tactile receptors and thermoreceptors of the skin.
9.5. Investigating vision - I. The optical system of the eye and the retina
9.5.1. Purkinje’s blood vessel shadow experiment
9.5.2. Ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye model.
9.5.3. Determination of visual acuity with Snellen’s charts
9.5.4. Examination of astigmatism
9.5.5. Determination of the field of vision
9.5.6. Characterization of the blind spot
9.5.7. Investigating colour vision
9.6. Electrooculography (EOG) with the Biopac recording system
9.6.1 Examination of slow tracking eye movements
9.6.2 Examination of saccadic eye movements during reading
9.6.3 Eye tracking - examination of fixation patterns
10. Examination of biolectrical signals accompanying brain function (EEG)
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Human electroencephalography
10.3. Single-channel human EEG recording using Biopac Student Lab system
10.4. Examination of previously recorded and printed EEG curves
11. Analysis of behaviour and learning
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Investigation of spontaneous behaviour under different experimental conditions.
11.2.1.The open-field test
11.3. Unexpected stimuli, effect of social interaction.
11.3.1.Fear reaction
11.4. Y-maze test
11.5. Operant conditioning
11.6. Maze (labyrinth) test with hungry mice
12. Investigating the effects of drugs on the central nervous system
12.1. Pharmacological studies
12.1.1. Quantitative aspects of drug effects
12.1.2. Drug application
12.1.3. Absorption, therapeutic window
12.1.4. Bioavailability
12.1.5. Distribution
12.1.6. Drug metabolism, elimination half-life
12.1.7. Excretion, elimination kinetics
12.2. Drug developmental aspects
12.2.1. Altering brain functions by chemicals
12.2.2.Classification of agents acting on the central nervous system and their mechanisms of action
12.3. Rapid screening of central nervous system active drugs
13. Polygraphic recording and biofeedback
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Human polygraphy and biofeedback training
13.2.1. Experimental methods of polygraphy
13.2.2. Experimental methods of biofeedback experiment
A.  
Descriptions of the used physical, chemical and mathematical units, concepts and procedures
Fast Fourier-Transformation
Determination of sensory thresholds
Texts for the oculogram
data report and evaluation:  Analysis of human blood - determining blood group type and blood glucose level
data report and evaluation: Electrocardiography - effects of body posture, breathing, physical activity and circulatory reflexes on heart function
Blood pressure measuring
data report and evaluation: Blood pressure measurements - effect of body position and physical exercise
data report and evaluation: Investigating human respiration (spirometry) - analysis and comparison of the pulmonary functions
data report and evaluation: Electromyography (dynamometry) - motor unit recruitment and fatigue
data report and evaluation: Human perception - testing human vision, hearing, tactile and thermal sensation
data report and evaluation: Electroencephalography (EEG) – examination of changes in the beta- and alpha activity
data report and evaluation: Studying animal behavior - examination of animal learning and behaviour
data report and evaluation: Investigating drug-mediated effects on animal behaviour - Irwin's activity test
data report and evaluation: Polygraphy: Galvanic skin response, ECG and respiration measurements, - „lie detection”